Thursday, March 31, 2016

Lab meeting about sex chromosomes and dosage compensation in vertebrates

Posted by Anna Nordén

Next time at the lab meeting (Tuesday, April 5th) we will discuss a review by Jennifer Marshall Graves about the evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes with an emphasis on the variation and similarity of dosage compensation mechanisms in vertebrate clades. How it works, how it might have evolved, and general patterns.

Looking forward to a fruitful discussion. Time (10 am) and place (Argumetet) as usual.

Title: Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation

Abstract: Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable — and can even be absent — in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes.

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