We have aready discussed how selection can bias variation to be more advantageous, but what are the the requirements for this to happen?
This paper from our colleagues at Southampton models gene regulatory network evolution to address which factors allow the generation of phenotypic variation "tailored" to environmental variation.
10:00 in Darwin's, with fika.
Paper available here
One of the most intriguing questions in evolution is how organisms exhibit suitable pheno- typic variation to rapidly adapt in novel selective environments. Such variability is crucial for evolvability, but poorly understood. In particular, how can natural selection favour develop- mental organisations that facilitate adaptive evolution in previously unseen environments? Such a capacity suggests foresight that is incompatible with the short-sighted concept of natural selection. A potential resolution is provided by the idea that evolution may discover and exploit information not only about the particular phenotypes selected in the past, but their underlying structural regularities: new phenotypes, with the same underlying regulari- ties, but novel particulars, may then be useful in new environments. If true, we still need to understand the conditions in which natural selection will discover such deep regularities rather than exploiting ‘quick fixes’ (i.e., fixes that provide adaptive phenotypes in the short term, but limit future evolvability). Here we argue that the ability of evolution to discover such regularities is formally analogous to learning principles, familiar in humans and machines, that enable generalisation from past experience. Conversely, natural selection that fails to enhance evolvability is directly analogous to the learning problem of over-fitting and the sub- sequent failure to generalise.Wesupport the conclusion that evolving systems and learning systems are different instantiations of the same algorithmic principles by showing that exist- ing results from the learning domain can be transferred to the evolution domain. Specifically, we show that conditions that alleviate over-fitting in learning systems successfully predict which biological conditions (e.g., environmental variation, regularity, noise or a pressure for developmental simplicity) enhance evolvability. This equivalence provides access to a well- developed theoretical framework from learning theory that enables a characterisation of the general conditions for the evolution of evolvability.
famous astrologer in indiaReplyDelete
Hello everyone, my name is ALFREED SIANG i am here to say a big thank you to my doctor DR OLU who helped me enlarge my penis.i have never had a happy relationship in my life because of my inability to perform well due to my small penis, due to frustration,i went online in search of solution to ending my predicament and than i came across testimony on how DR OLU has helped them, so i contacted him and he promised to help me with penis enlargement,i doubted at first but i gave him a trial and he sent me the product which i used according to his prescription and in less than a week,i saw changes in my penis and it grow to the size i wanted and since then,i am now a happy man and no lady complains again about my penis.if you also need the services of my doctor,you can also contact him on his email..firstname.lastname@example.org or his whataspp is +2348140654426ReplyDelete
Where to find the Best Astrologers in india?ReplyDelete
hello everyone here i am Jack Mrk a medical doctor from United Kingdom , i want to share a great testimony of how Dr AAKIOYA herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis size was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing and discouraging, a 39 year old full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame my wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor , she never enjoyed sex, i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until last two months when i saw a testimony of how Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream have been helping people from the globe,i saw one MR KENNETH BERTNEY testifying of how Dr AKIOYA helped him enlarge his penis size so i decided to give him a try ,i visited his website link https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ we talked and he gave me steps to follow which i did and to my greatest surprise in less than two weeks of taking the herbal mixture cream my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 10.5 inches long and i was amazed when my wife said i satisfy her so well now all thanks to Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream,i will forever be grateful To him i also learnt that Dr AKIOYA also have the herbal cure to problems likeReplyDelete
DIABETES type 1 and type 2
HERPES GENITAL WART
LOW SPERM COUNT
SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL
HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE
so if you you are suffering from any of this problems please do not hesitate to contact him now email email@example.com website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ you can call him or Whatsapp Dr AKIOYA via whatsapp +2348105257464 thanks
Hi everyone, i'm little ashamed to tell such a story, on how i enlarge my penis by Dr, Ken. it really matters in your relationship or marriage. I got married to my wife about 1 month after we met on a photo studio, we lived happily for the first 3 months of our marriage until i and my wife started having quarrels at home because i couldn't satisfy her on bed with my little penis. Actually my penis was very small, it measured about 3.2 inches long on erection and i am 39 years old. My wife said it was forbidden by the women of this world. My wife started sleeping with other men outside. Sometimes i will return from work without finding my wife at home and whenever i call or ask her where she was, she will always snub at me and sometimes just tell me to go get a larger dick. All this continued for a long time and it hurt me so much that i was at the edge of breaking up on the marriage till when i read about a doctor called Dr ken online. I never thought i could smile and be in a happy marriage again if not for the help of Dr Ken. I got the doctors Website Emails: firstname.lastname@example.org mobile number +2348102574680ReplyDelete
Wow! this is Amazing! Do you know your hidden name meaning ? Click here to find your hidden name meaningReplyDelete
After being in relationship with Wilson for seven years,he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don’t believed in spell, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called Dr Zuma zuk and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his email: email@example.com or WhatsApp him +15068001647ReplyDelete
you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS
My Name is Elena I want to testify of the good work of Lord Zuma who helped me in achieving the goals, i was in a relationship for 4years with my boyfriend and everything was going so sweet i loved him and i believed he loved me more than anything in this world after a while i noticed some changes in him so i knew something was wrong i tried to pleases him in several ways but no outcome, shortly i noticed he was seeing another girl i tried to make him understand that i loved him so much but he wouldn't even listen, one day i read a testimony on a similar case a person testifying of the work of this great Lord Zuma even when i did not believe i was convinced by my girlfriend so i contacted him and let him know all my problems and he said i should not worry that everything will be okay for me, in 2days my lover came asking me to forgive him after giving Lord Zuma the information and the necessary things to carry out the work for me, so if you are going through any problem contact him he might be the answer to your problem, here is his email address. firstname.lastname@example.org or WhatsApp him +1 506 800 1647.ReplyDelete
Stainless Steel - Titanium White Octane Artisan Artisan Artisan ArtReplyDelete
Stainless 2014 ford focus titanium hatchback Steel. Stainless Steel. Stainless Steel. Custom Artisan Artisan Artisan Artisan Artisan Artisan Artisan Artisan apple watch titanium vs aluminum Artisan Artisan Artisan Artisan titanium wedding ring Artisan titanium bikes Artisan Artisan Artisan titanium lug nuts Artisan Artisan